San Felipe de Austin was the site on the Brazos River chosen as the headquarters of the colony of Stephen F. Austin. As such, it became the unofficial capital of the region. By 1828, the town consisted of about 20 cabins.
As friction with Mexico increased, Austin's headquarters became a gathering place for meetings of the settlers. It was the site of the Convention of 1832 and the Convention of 1833. It was also the meeting place for the Consultation in 1835, which made San Felipe the capital of the Provisional Government.
The community was burned in 1836 after evacuation by the Texas Army, but was partially rebuilt the following year. The shift in the seat of government in 1836, combined with San Felipe's inadequate transportation, resulted in a decline of the population of the community throughout the balance of the nineteenth century.